Excavationin archaeologythe exposure, recording, and recovery of buried material remains. In a sense, excavation is the surgical aspect of archaeology: it is surgery of the buried landscape and is carried out with all the skilled craftsmanship that has been built up in the era since archaeological pioneers Heinrich Schliemannoften considered to be the modern discoverer of prehistoric Greece, and Flinders Petriewho invented a sequence dating method that made possible the reconstruction of history from the remains of ancient cultures.
Excavations can be classified, from the point of view of their purpose, as planned, rescue, or accidental. Most important excavations are the result of a prepared plan—that is to say, their purpose is to locate buried evidence about an archaeological site. Many are project oriented, as, for example, when a scholar studying the life of the pre-Roman, Celtic-speaking Gauls of France may deliberately select a group of hill forts and excavate them, as Sir Mortimer Wheeler did in northwestern France in the years before the outbreak of World War II.
But many excavations, particularly in the heavily populated areas of central and northern Europe, are done not from choice but from necessity. Gravel digging, clearing the ground for airports, quarrying, road widening and building, the construction of houses, factories, and public buildings frequently threaten the destruction of sites known to contain archaeological remains.
Emergency excavations then have to be mounted to rescue whatever knowledge of the past can be obtained before these remains are obliterated forever.
Partial destruction of cities in western Europe by bombing during World War II allowed rescue excavations to take place before rebuilding. An extension of the runways at London Airport led to the discovery of a pre-Roman Celtic temple there. The role of chance in the discovery of archaeological sites and portable finds is considerable. Farmers have often unearthed archaeological finds while plowing their fields, and accidental discovery by construction crews is common.
The famous painted and engraved Upper Paleolithic cave of Lascaux in southern France was discovered by chance in when four French schoolboys decided to investigate a hole left by an uprooted tree. They widened a smaller shaft at the base of the hole and jumped through to find themselves in the middle of this remarkable pagan sanctuary. Similarly, the first cache of the Dead Sea Scrolls was discovered in by a Bedouin looking for a stray animal.
These accidental finds often lead to important excavations. The French archaeologist P. All forms of archaeological excavation, from design to execution, require great skill and careful preparation. Years of training in the field, first as an ordinary digger, then as a site supervisor, with spells of work as recorder, surveyor, and photographer, are required before anyone can organize and direct an excavation. Most museums, universities, and government archaeological departments organize training excavations.
Actually, much of the work of excavation is careful work with trowel, penknife, and brush. The digging consists of the removal of surplus dirt and the painstaking examination, through observation, sifting, and other means, of remaining soil, artifactsand context. It is often the recovery of features that are almost indistinguishable from nonarchaeological aspects of the buried landscape: one example of this is the recovery of mud-brick walls in Mesopotamia ; another is the tracing of collapsed walls of dry stone slabs in a cairn in stony country in the southwest Midlands of England.Under FDA regulations, an Institutional Review Board is group that has been formally designated to review and monitor biomedical research involving human subjects.
In accordance with FDA regulations, an IRB has the authority to approve, require modifications in to secure approvalor disapprove research. This group review serves an important role in the protection of the rights and welfare of human research subjects.
The purpose of IRB review is to assure, both in advance and by periodic review, that appropriate steps are taken to protect the rights and welfare of humans participating as subjects in the research. To accomplish this purpose, IRBs use a group process to review research protocols and related materials e. Comprehensive list of regulations governing human subject protection and the conduct of clinical trials.
A series of Information Sheets providing the Agency's current guidance on the protection of people who are subjects of research.
Topics include Institutional Review Boards and Sponsor-Investigator-IRB interrelationships, FDA clinical investigator inspections and sanctions, clinical trials protocols, informed consent, and documents necessary for the conduct of clinical trials. Information for Health Professionals. Additional links to information on subject protection from FDA and other government agencies.
Provides the definitions and terminology associated with clinical safety experience and the standards for expedited reporting of adverse drug reactions that occur during clinical trials. FDA Compliance Program Pre-Award and Post-Award Processes. Find useful information about proposing and conducting NIH extramural research involving human subjects, including policies, regulations, training and resources.பாண்டியர்களின் வீழ்ச்சியும் எழுச்சியும் - Pandiyas History in Tamil - Pradeep Kumar
Learn about considerations for human subjects research when planning and submitting a research application or contract proposal, and throughout the extramural funding cycle. Are you planning on conducting human subjects research? Learn more about research that meets the definition human subjects research, Federal regulation requirements, and whether your project may be considered exempt. Also, learn about NIH-specific considerations and become more familiar with NIH policies, and other regulations as it relates to human subjects research protections.
If you are submitting a grant application or responding to a contract proposal to NIH that includes a clinical trial, or are involved with conducting, managing, or overseeing clinical trials, learn about NIH policies, and find resources to guide you in your work.
The information provided on this website is designed to assist the extramural community in addressing inclusion, including the Inclusion of Women and Minorities policy and the Inclusion Across the Lifespan policy, in NIH grant applications and progress reports. Find key resources to understand the policy expectations and the process for requesting exceptions. Find information about human subjects research policies, and NIH-specific requirements for humans subjects research studies.
Training and tools to learn about human subjects research, exemptions, and NIH requirements for human subjects research. Human Subjects Research - Home page Find useful information about proposing and conducting NIH extramural research involving human subjects, including policies, regulations, training and resources. Definition of Human Subjects Research Are you planning on conducting human subjects research? Clinical Trial Requirements for Grants and Contracts If you are submitting a grant application or responding to a contract proposal to NIH that includes a clinical trial, or are involved with conducting, managing, or overseeing clinical trials, learn about NIH policies, and find resources to guide you in your work.
This page last updated on February 28, Back to Top. Department of Health and Human Services Grants. Turning Discovery Into Health.Archaeologyor archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifactsarchitecturebiofacts or ecofacts and cultural landscapes.
Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. Archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3. It is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. The discipline involves surveyingexcavation and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past.
In broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. It draws upon anthropologyhistoryart historyclassicsethnologygeographygeologyliterary historylinguisticssemiologysociologytextual criticismphysicsinformation scienceschemistrystatisticspaleoecologypaleographypaleontologypaleozoologyand paleobotany.
Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, and has since become a discipline practiced across the world. Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past.
Nonetheless, today, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeologythe looting of artifacts,  a lack of public interest, and opposition to the excavation of human remains. Antiquarians studied history with particular attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts, as well as historical sites.
Antiquarianism focused on the empirical evidence that existed for the understanding of the past, encapsulated in the motto of the 18th-century antiquary, Sir Richard Colt Hoare"We speak from facts not theory". Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. In Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco - Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age.
Flavio Biondoan Italian Renaissance humanist historian, created a systematic guide to the ruins and topography of ancient Rome in the early 15th century, for which he has been called an early founder of archaeology. Antiquarians of the 16th century, including John Leland and William Camdenconducted surveys of the English countryside, drawing, describing and interpreting the monuments that they encountered.
The OED first cites "archaeologist" from ; this soon took over as the usual term for one major branch of antiquarian activity. One of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England.
John Aubrey — was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other field monuments in southern England. He was also ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings. He attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture, costume, and shield-shapes.
These excavations began in in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, as well the unearthing of frescoshad a big impact throughout Europe. However, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard; the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington — Cunnington made meticulous recordings of Neolithic and Bronze Age barrowsand the terms he used to categorize and describe them are still used by archaeologists today.
One of the major achievements of 19th-century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy. The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William SmithJames Hutton and Charles Lyell.
The application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites. A major figure in the development of archaeology into a rigorous science was the army officer and ethnologistAugustus Pitt Rivers who began excavations on his land in England in the s. His approach was highly methodical by the standards of the time, and he is widely regarded as the first scientific archaeologist. He arranged his artifacts by type or " typologicallyand within types by date or "chronologically".
This style of arrangement, designed to highlight the evolutionary trends in human artifacts, was of enormous significance for the accurate dating of the objects.Pre-Award and Post-Award Processes. The questionnaire is a tool to assist you with determining whether your project involves non-exempt human subjects research, meets the criteria for exempt human subjects research, or does not involve human subjects research.
This resource summarizes the definition of human subjects research and provides examples of human subjects research projects. It also describes what you will need when you are preparing your NIH application and what is required if you are funded.
This resource is a guide to simplify the understanding of the exemptions from the federal regulations for the protection of human subjects research. It summarizes Exemptions 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, providing basic definitions, examples of studies that meet and do not meet the criteria of the exemption, and aspects one must consider when engaged in exempt or non-exempt human subjects research. Studies involving the use of human specimens or data may or may not be considered to be research involving human subjects, depending on the details of the materials to be used.
Withdrawal of Subjects from Research Guidance (2010)
Use this flowchart to help determine if studies involving private information or biospecimens may meet the definition of human subjects research. Learn more about research that meets the definition human subjects research, Federal regulation requirements, and whether your project may be considered exempt. Also, learn about NIH specific considerations and become more familiar with NIH policies, and other regulations as it relates to human subjects research protections. Human Subjects Research Infographic This resource summarizes the definition of human subjects research and provides examples of human subjects research projects.
Exempt Human Subjects Research Infographic This resource is a guide to simplify the understanding of the exemptions from the federal regulations for the protection of human subjects research. Research Involving Private Information or Biospecimens Flowchart Studies involving the use of human specimens or data may or may not be considered to be research involving human subjects, depending on the details of the materials to be used.
This page last updated on January 13, Back to Top. Department of Health and Human Services Grants. Turning Discovery Into Health.Visit cdc. The use of the word should in OHRP guidance means that something is recommended or suggested, but not required. An institution may use an alternative approach if the approach satisfies the requirements of the HHS regulations at 45 CFR part OHRP is available to discuss alternative approaches at or This document does the following:. This guidance document does not apply to research regulated by FDA that involves coded private information or specimens.
Target Audience: Institutional review boards IRBsinvestigators, and funding agencies that may be responsible for review or oversight of human subjects research conducted or supported by HHS. Research means a systematic investigation, including research development, testing and evaluation, designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge.
Activities which meet this definition constitute research for purposes of this policy, whether or not they are conducted or supported under a program which is considered research for other purposes. For example, some demonstration and service programs may include research activities. Human subject means a living individual about whom an investigator whether professional or student conducting research obtains.
Intervention includes both physical procedures by which data are gathered for example, venipuncture and manipulations of the subject or the subject's environment that are performed for research purposes. Interaction includes communication or interpersonal contact between investigator and subject. Private information includes information about behavior that occurs in a context in which an individual can reasonably expect that no observation or recording is taking place, and information which has been provided for specific purposes by an individual and which the individual can reasonably expect will not be made public for example, a medical record.
Private information must be individually identifiable i. OHRP considers the term investigator to include anyone involved in conducting the research. OHRP does not consider the act of solely providing coded private information or specimens for example, by a tissue repository to constitute involvement in the conduct of the research.
Note that if the individuals who provide coded information or specimens collaborate on other activities related to the conduct of this research with the investigators who receive such information or specimens, then OHRP would consider such additional activities to constitute involvement in the conduct of the research.
Examples of such additional activities include, but are not limited to: 1 the study, interpretation, or analysis of the data resulting from the coded information or specimens; and 2 authorship of presentations or manuscripts related to the research.
Under the definition of human subject at 45 CFR Obtaining identifiable private information or identifiable specimens includes, but is not limited to:. Conversely, OHRP considers private information or specimens not to be individually identifiable when they cannot be linked to specific individuals by the investigator s either directly or indirectly through coding systems. For example, OHRP does not consider research involving only coded private information or specimens to involve human subjects as defined under 45 CFR This guidance applies to existing private information and specimens, as well as to private information and specimens to be collected in the future for purposes other than the currently proposed research.
The following are examples of private information or specimens that will be collected in the future for purposes other than the currently proposed research: 1 medical records; and 2 ongoing collection of specimens for a tissue repository.
In some cases an investigator who obtains coded private information or specimens about living individuals under one of the conditions cited in 2 a - c above may 1 unexpectedly learn the identity of one or more living individuals, or 2 for previously unforseen reasons now believe that it is important to identify the individual s.
U.S. Food and Drug Administration
If, as a result, the investigator knows, or may be able to readily ascertain, the identity of the individuals to whom the previously obtained private information or specimens pertain, then the research activity now would involve human subjects under the HHS regulations. OHRP recommends that institutions have policies in place that designate the individual or entity authorized to determine whether research involving coded private information or specimens constitutes human subjects research. The person s authorized to make the determination should be knowledgeable about the human subject protection regulations.
In addition, the institution should ensure the appropriate communication of such a policy to all investigators.All Rights Reserved. I love capture life. About Me. A research paper is an expanded essay that presents your own interpretation or evaluation or argument.
When you write an essay, you use everything that you personally know and have thought about a subject. When you write a research paper you build upon what you know about the subject and make a deliberate attempt to find out what experts know.
A research paper is any kind of academic writing based on original research which features analysis and interpretation from the author — and it can be a bit overwhelming to begin with! Becoming an experienced researcher and writer in any field or discipline takes a great deal of practice. There are few individuals for whom this process comes naturally.
Remember, even the most seasoned academic veterans have had to learn how to write a research paper at some point in their career. We are Bangalore, India based research paper publication organization. Publication of papers are free with us. Paid service are market research, patent filing, Technical Writing, Documentation, data sheet, articles, project report. The early s saw several competing projects of opening the hitherto guarded textuality of the Veda to a wider public, both in Europe and in India.
Apart from those animated by the spirit of imperial control or allegedly pure academic.
Our personalised recommendations makes staying up to date easy. Research papers are a form of publications where the results of any research conducted by you are highlighted, which are then submitted to the various associations depending on your field of research. These may be accessed through websites. With submissions on topics ranging from the spelling bee to rugby, basketball, and more, we represent the largest forum for groundbreaking research in sports.